ill ds ng ill rm ilt nd

ed

June, 1907.

AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 201

(Established 1832). AMERICAN ENGINEER

New York Centrat LInes.

Synopsis. PART I.

PaGE. ( The Importance of this Development............ 201 Introductory 2ue Need of Such & Syste. .cccccccsccscscess 201 General Features of the System................ 201 Introduction on the New York Central Lines................... 202 Former Apprentice Schools on the New York Central Lines...... 202 CORSE CIC 6 oie tKK 6 CU a Nedeeedceaagcdteeneceueseons 202 ee ee ee ee er er eer 202 -vening Classes for the other Employees...................2.+ 203 Apprentice Courses or Schedules.......... 203 Rate of Pay for Apprentices.............. 203 ee Perr eet torre 203 } EURO OF BROCUGR. ccc ccccvasse 203 eral Methods 2 . Grading the Classes............ 208 Schools RIM COMIGERS i's 0's ceswscnues 205 PVOnen COMPEEE. cc cicccccccccce 408 , OMI co's b0uese's cee eawaar 205 I OG OE so i.nb se these ciaicadascusnendeedeunsds ews sannenea 205 [ SO cto nnweweeeen ELE ELSPA 205 Pisctastecn eee aties CUUMTMCRIUURE oa 60:00s ntdeewewcenwens 207 rawing instructus Observation Visits to Other Schools... 207 n a er rr Terre re re 207 he Sho astructor § Duties ....ccccccccsccccccccccccccseces 207 en Se: ee f SNNOOS bance due sardilceuwavaqweas 207 Advastbagen 00 te TSG ic cocckcsnccacccisseenecscsveess 207 (Drawing Room Equipment.......... 208 Equipment Furnished to Each Boy.. 208 Drawing Instruments. ....cccccceccee 208

Models ...... Asppannpenaciyesets

~i)ie3 Reference Books.

cilities and Equipment GE Kcckuncbeetadsaceeekeanatuna

TOGO COs 6 ok ncacacceeesevas Stereopticon and Reflection Lantern. 209 Air Brake Instruction Car.......... 209 ; (Other Facilities. ....cccccccescccces 209 Interest Shown by the Boys...--scecccseccccesccsccesssvesess 209

Better Class of Boys Being Se- GUAGE oot c cencesceveree cence 209 Understand Instructions More . Kdeantines Thee Bae MAGEE ccceseaqecucsaccscas 20 \dvantages Thus Far Apparent ee eee ee 209 Less Spoiled Work........+... 209

Knowledge of Drawing Put to PUGS COGS ik ccisccssases 209

\RT II.

Entrance Qualifications. Examinations. Blackboard Exercises. Lectures. Discipline. Records and Diplomas Incentives to Promote and Hold Interest. Attitude of the Men. Attitude of the Officers. The Car Department. Apprentice Auxiliaries.

PART III.

Apprentice Courses or Schedules.

The Drawing Course in Detail.

The Problem Course in Detail. ; Apprentice School vs. Technical School Training.

Introductory.

A development which promises to be the most important that has ever taken place in the motive power department of our railroads, and the general principles of which are equally ap- plicable to manufacturing and commercial organizations, is the apprentice system recently introduced upon the New York Cen- tral Lines and now being extended as rapidly as possible through- out the system. While it is too soon to judge accurately of the final results, those thus far apparent, and the very rational and practical methods which are being used, indicate that it will very materially improve the labor conditions and add greatly to the efficiency of the motive power department.

Those who are familiar with the present labor situation, the lack of skilled mechanics, the difficulty in securing foremen and the gross neglect, on most roads, of a system for recruiting good men for these positions, must realize the great need of improve-

ment. The most forceful presentation of this subject which has ever been made, whether we consider the railroads alone or the manufacturing and commercial interests at large, was that made by Mr. G. M. Basford in an individual paper read before the Master Mechanics’ Association in 1905 (AMERICAN ENGINEER, page 251, July, 1905). The necessity of installing such a system, and a general outline of a system which would produce successful results under present conditions, was clearly presented. As these suggestions have been followed quite closely in working out the details of the system on the New York Cen- tral Lines it is suggested that a study of the following article be preceded by a careful reading of Mr. Basford’s paper.

Briefly the system adopted may be summed up under the fol- lowing three heads:

1. It provides for the close supervision and instruction of the apprentices in the shop by an apprentice instructor.

2. A school is conducted by the company during working hours, the apprentice being paid for attendance, at which me- chanical drawing is taught in a practical way.

3. A course of problems, carefully arranged to suit the needs of the apprentices, has been prepared which they are expected to work out on their own time.

While the system differs radically in many respects from any- thing that has been done in this country, it follows more or less closely the general principles governing the educational system of the British Admiralty, which has been in operation more than sixty years and according to Sir William H. White has produced the majority of the men who are now occuping the most prominent positions in the ship building industries of Great Britain. In an article, published in the January, 1904, issue of Technics, he says of it: “It has given to private shipbuilders its leaders, who have risen from the ranks, while it has pro- duced men holding many important and influential positions in all parts of the world.”

The only system that has been carried out on a large scale in this country, which at all approaches the methods used on the New York Central Lines, is the General Electric Company’s ap- prentice school at Lynn, Mass., which was described in a paper on “A Plan to Provide for a Supply of Skilled Workmen,” pre- sented by Mr. Magnus W. Alexander at the December, 1906, meeting of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. A special shop has been fitted up at Lynn, known as the “Appren- tice Training School,” and for the first 1% or 2% years of the four years’ course the boys work in this shop under the direc- tion of competent instructors. The production of this depart- ment is of commercial value. The latter part of the course is spent on regular work in the shops. A school is conducted dur- ing working hours at the expense of the company, each appren- tice receiving six hours’ instruction a week.

Under the New York Central system the boys come into con- tact with the actual shop conditions from the very first.

During the discussion of Mr. Alexander’s paper the fact was brought out very forcibly several times that manufacturing in- dustries are suffering greatly from the lack of suitable means for recruiting skilled labor and that unless immediate steps are taken to remedy the difficulty the commercial resources of the country will be seriously crippled. The same thing applies with equal force to the motive power departments of our railroads.

It is true that here or there a railroad or a shop has given some attention to this subject, but generally speaking it has been almost lost sight of. The old methods are not suitable for the new conditions and an adequate system cannot be installed and carried on successfully as a side issue by an officer who already has all he can do. Fortunately the formation of large railroad systems, each made up of several railroads, makes it possible to place a work of this kind in the hands of a well qualified man who can give his entire time to it and employ the necessary as- sistants.

The purpose of such a movement, if it is to be successful, must be in line with the suggestion intimated by the following words of Mr. G. M. Basford, used in closing the discussion of his paper before the Master Mechanics’ Association two years ago: “I beg you to bear in mind the pyramid—a pyramid of the rank

202

AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL.

and file, the rank and file of the workmen upon whose shoulders you stand. As the base is great and upright and strong morally and intellectually, so is the structure. No structure is great and permanent that is not right at the bottom.” If steps are taken to furnish a good supply of skilled workmen, well equipped for service under modern shop conditions, there will be no trouble in developing men from among them for the higher positions.

In the series of articles, of which this is the first, an effort will be made to explain just what has been done in this matter on the New York Central Lines up to the present time. The articles are intended to supplement a paper to be presented be- fore the coming meeting of the Master Mechanics’ Association, by Mr. C. W. Cross, superintendent of apprentices, and Mr. W. B. Russell, assistant superintendent of apprentices, which will be reprinted in our July issue.

Introduction on the New York Central Lines.

Mr. J. F. Deems, when he became general superintendent of motive power of the New York Central Lines, had under con- sideration the establishment of an adequate system of appren- ticeship on that system, but the apprentice department was not inaugurated until March 1, 1906. On May 7, 1906, the first ap- prentice class, under this new plan, was started at the West Albany shops. It was, of course, realized that while there would be some advantages which would be almost immediately ap- parent, the most important results would not be noticeable for a number of years, and therefore, before starting the organiza- tion, steps were taken to insure its permanency for a period of sufficient length to enable the results to be clearly demonstrated.

Former Apprentice Schools on the New York Central Lines.

Although at the inauguration of the new plan there were twelve shops on the system, each of which had from 20 to 74 apprentices, apprentice schools of some kind had been carried on previously by the local managements at only four points, Elkhart, Ind.; Jackson, Mich.; Oswego, N. Y.; and McKees Rocks, Pa.

About 35 years ago an apprentice school was started at the Elkhart shops on the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Rail- way. The sessions were held in the evening and the school was intended primarily for the apprentices, although anyone in the employ of the company was eligible to membership. This school was continued with more or less success, and in 1901, under the direction of Mr. C. W. Cross, then master mechanic, attendance was made compulsory for apprentices, and what was known as the Apprentice Association was organized. This association held meetings every two weeks, at which reports were made by com- mittees who had visited other shops, or addresses were made by persons skilled in different classes of work. While membership was not compulsory the greater number of the apprentices be- longed to it and the meetings were well attended.

On July 28, 1886, evening class work for the apprentices was started at the Jackson shops of the Michigan Central Railroad. For the first few months the classes were held from 7 to 9 Pp. ., but this did not prove satisfactory and was changed to 5.15 to 7.15 Pp. M. Each class met one night a week from November Ist to April 3oth. Attendance of apprentices was made compulsory.

In January, 1904, an apprentice school was organized at the Oswego shops of the New York Central under the direction of Mr. W. O. Thompson, division superintendent of motive power. This class met for two hours, directly after the whistle blew at the close of the day, one day of each week. Attendance was made compulsory for the apprentices and they were paid for their time in the class, thus making it possible to enforce a somewhat more rigid discipline.

About two years ago an evening school was organized at the McKees Rocks shops of the Pittsburgh & Lake Erie Railroad, under the direction of Mr. L. H. Turner, superintendent of motive power, and Mr. W. P. Richardson, mechanical engineer. These classes met twice a week and attendance of the appren- tices was made compulsory.

Mechanical drawing was taught at these four schools, the method being the same as that ordinarily followed, including

—— practice in lettering, geometrical exercises, projections, copying of drawings and blue prints, making drawings of locomotive parts and making tracings.

General Organization.

The apprentice department is under the direction of Mr. C W. Cross, superintendent of apprentices, who reports directly to the general superintendent of motive power and devotes his entire time to this work. His office is at the Grand Central Station in New York. Mr. Cross gained his early experience on the Pennsylvania Lines West of Pittsburg, after which he took a position as master mechanic on the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railway at Elkhart, Ind. While at Elkhart he re- organized the apprentice system in the shops at that point, mak- ing it much more effective. His very extensive and successful experience as a shop manager and master mechanic, his per- sonality which appeals to the boys, and the interest that he has always displayed in the welfare of the apprentices, makes him especially well qualified for this position.

He is assisted by Mr. W. B. Russell, who has charge of the educational features. Mr. Russell is a graduate of the Massa- chusetts Institute of Technology and was engaged for a number of years as an instructor at the Pratt Institute in Brooklyn, one of the most successful trade schools in this country. He has thus had exceptional opportunities for studying boys and young men of about the same type as the apprentices in railroad shops and understands thoroughly how to arrange the work to hold their interest and so they will understand how to apply what they have learned to practical purposes.

The central organization deals with the general problems af- fecting the apprentice work, otitlines the different courses, looks after the educational work, organizes new schools and keeps in close touch with all of the schools.

At each of the larger shops are two instructors, a drawing instructor, who in most cases is the shop draftsman and who has charge of the school work, and a shop instructor, who gives his entire time to instructing the apprentices in their shop work and to seeing that they receive the proper shop experience. Both of these men report directly to the local officers of the road, who keep in close touch with the apprentice department.

Special Features of the System.

The apprentices are instructed in drawing and in shop prob- lems by a man already in the service of the company, on the shop property, during working hours and while under pay.

They are instructed in the trade in the shop by a special in- structor, who gives the whole or part of his time to this work, and who is responsible to the local shop management.

Thé instruction in the trade is given in the shop on the regu- lar tools and in the regular run of shop work.

Apprentice schedules are followed, insuring a thorough train- ing in the trade and giving the necessary variety and work.

The drawing and the problem courses are arranged to allow each apprentice to progress as rapidly as he desires, but so as to enable a single instructor to handle classes with as many as 24 students in a class.

The character of the courses is such as to fit the standards of the road, to read in the language of the shop and to suit the special conditions existing locally.

The method of instruction differs radically from the ordinary methods of teaching in the following points:

Text-books are not an essential part of the plan.

There is no sub-division into subjects.

All principles are clothed in problem form.

There is no arbitrary standard of the amount of ground to be covered.

No examinations are held.

The progress and marks of the apprentices are based on the close personal touch maintained between the instructors and the apprentices.

The apprentice work can be installed at the greater number of the shops by using talent already in the service of the com pany.

~~ SS Oe

we

-

June, 1907.

AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL.

OCCUPATIONS OF EMPLOYES IN THE EVENING CLASSES AT THE DIFFERENT SCHOOLS.

Occupation.

| West Albany. | Collinwood. | McKees Rocks | Brightwood.

Machinist ......ccsecccccccnccccceccccces ee ean eae Boilermaker .. e+e e cere eee eeeeeeeeeeeees Blacksmith ......ccccccscccccccsscccsccccs aca 1 Foremen, ASsSt. .......ssscccccecccccccces roe 4 9 4

Piece Work PMNS cai xiscd desieredin Seaim aueeeias

TIMMCT sewer eee eee e eee eee eee eeneeeeeeees

Clerk Tere Te Te TET TCC TCT TTT eC rer ; are re ere e aeunl

Crane Men ....-ceecccccccccccccccscccoes Painter .ccccccscccccesccsccccscccsecscese Car Dept. ...ccrceccccccceccccccccccccecs Electrictam se eee ec eee eee e ence eerneeeveees Upholsterer eee rccccnrccccccceseceeeescese Canmee WEOEOE 5o0s686ess wesiscvessdcudas RE SEE. 6 ick si venscwrseresacreieedas

WOOd WOHMEE 60 cscs ccdcreticcsccceccccces cow DP i kkbe lice caenceaicds

Templet Maker ....ccsccccccccccscccecece wee ee EE eek skeen se deuvavcswatcecuneaws wee waite Wo MAGE cic cece ccceeccavcvccesseccesee | cccscsccccecs aes 1 Moulder .cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccces saae nee CLC EPCOT COPEL TE CT OC CEE Cee Cee eee Te Tee Cree

Wane MONEE nyc cc ve cee rescecescadcawaes ee eer N roaniataaaea as |

Ghebigniety TMBMISEE occ ccccicssscaesveces | MECSSENTET ccccccccccccccccccccccccescccce eee ere re Eee eee ree

WEE RUE ae ccskeWonsSienedcaxcceceees es |

OPES DOT ee Pe Ee oe ey SR Seen

13

Oswego.

Jackson.

~w

Grand total, 132.

Evening Classes for the Other Employes.

The men in the shops, both foremen and workmen, have evinced considerable interest in the apprentice schools, and there has been a demand for evening schools to give them the same advantages. In response to this, evening schools have been started at a number of places, including McKees Rocks, October, 1906; Elkhart, November, 1906; Jackson, November, 1906; West Albany, November, 1906; Brightwood, December, 1906; Oswego, January, 1907, and Collinwood, February, 1907. These classes are open to all of the employees. At all of the points, except Elkhart and McKees Rocks, they meet for an hour and a half or two hours directly after the shop whistle blows in the evening. At Elkhart the classes meet from 7 to 9 and at McKees Rocks from 7.30 to 9.30 P. M. The men are more regular in attend- ance and take a keener interest in the work when the meeting is held directly after the shop closes. In many cases the men live a considerable distance from the shop, and it would not be con- venient for them to return after going home to their dinners.

The make up of these classes, as shown in the accompanying table, is very interesting and will give some idea of the extent to which this work has been carried. At several of the schools where there is a full quota of apprentices and a waiting list the boys take places as helpers until there is an opening for them in the apprentice department. These boys usually enroll in the evening classes. Boys who have finished their apprenticeship also follow up their studies in connection with the evening classes. These classes are discontinued for three or four months during the summer. The men who attend them take the same course as the apprentices, but if they desire may skip the easier portions. As a rule they prefer to take all of the work, review- ing that part with which they are familiar. They furnish all of their own material and pay the instructor (the apprentice school drawing instructor) for his time. The cost of tuition amounts to about $1.25 per month, which ordinarily includes nine lessons. The classes are held in the apprentice school room, the company furnishing this, with light and heat, free. Only the drawing work is done in class, the problems being worked outside.

These classes give the more ambitious men an opportunity for becoming more proficient and to fit themselves for better posi- tions. They are especially valuable for foremen and assistant foremen who may desire to “brush up” their knowledge of draw- ing and mathematics. As a result of the classes the shop men are becoming more familiar with the company standards and are being drawn into closer touch with the shop draftsman.

General Methods.

Apprentice Courses or Schedules—One of the first steps taken by the apprentice department was to draw up uniform appren- tice regulations to be followed at all the shops, and to arrange schedules showing the amount of time to be devoted to each

* One of these clerks is from the engineering department.

part of the work for each trade. These regulations and the apprentice courses will be considered in detail in other sections of these articles.

Rate of Pay—tThe rate of pay for the apprentices is controlled by the management of each road.

Tue ScHOoOL.

Place——The school room should be located near the shop buildings from which the greater number of the apprentices come, in order that as little time as possible will be lost in going to and fro, and so that the boys can conveniently drop in during the noon hour. The room should be well lighted and ventilated. Provision should be made, if possible, for sufficient blackboard space to send the entire class to the board at one time. The floor area, including the space occupied by the filing cases, racks or tables for models and the instructor’s desk, should have an average of at least 25 to 30 square feet to each member of the class, and more if possible.

At West Albany the school is on the ground floor of a build- ing alongside the machine shop and opposite the office building. A connecting room at one end contains the filing cases and large models. The school room is rather crowded, the drawing room tables being made specially narrow.

At Oswego, Depew, Jackson and Collinwood the school rooms are in the office buildings, the one at Depew being especially large and well lighted. At McKees Rocks a large room on the second floor of the storehouse, which is centrally located, is used. At Elkhart the school is held in a separate building, which was formerly used by one of the other departments. It is well lighted, as it is comparatively narrow and has windows on both sides.

The building at Brightwood, on the Big Four, was built espe- cially for the school. It is of frame construction, located con- veniently, and the large amount of window space furnishes splendid light. Inside dimensions of the building are 25 x 50 x 13 ft. high. An idea of the arrangement of several of the school rooms and buildings may be gained from the accompanying illus- trations.

Time of Meeting.—The classes meet twice a week for the first two hours in the morning. The boys are bright, fresh and clean at this time of day and able to do their best work. This is much more satisfactory than evening classes, as the boys are in a more receptive frame of mind than after a long day in the shop. The schools are closed during the month of August. The boys ring in at the shop before coming to class and at the close of the session proceed directly to the shop. Strict discipline is enforced in the school.

Grading the Classes—No attempt has been made to grade the classes, according to the progress made by the students, except at Oswego. At that place conditions at present are such that this

LAVA MT feats HOS SOLLNUNdd Vv NOMIALENT “dOOML a@ LV “IoOOHDS LINaAXddVY AO AOTMALNI

JOURNAL.

2

ld “IOOHOS AOILLNAYddV

Q << eS & jl =< aa Q Z < ox 2) (2)

. I

E

AMERICAN

June, 1907.

AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL.

205

APPRENTICES IN THE DIFFERENT TRADES AT THE VARIOUS SCHOOLS.

Trade West Albany. Jackson. Depew. Collinwood. |McKees Rocks, East Buffalo.| Brightwood. Elkhart. Oswego. Machinist .......-.-. - 54 30 53 34. a: GR scks Peawnwsceesedac 26. . 36 16. pee a Ne AR Peer rrr Serene rere were cree GQ ccnebacdcaw<cedeeeclaed 6 ccd wetnde hues ceeds candcal ccasceeessseeaaeanee Boilermaker ere ee 11 9 15 a DW ca selvbwseanetaanae 6. 12 1 Blacksmith eececcce eece : ee hey ae ee OD manda uweheanndeseuseuceas eee , Saree, ee eran eer 1 Tin and Copper Shop} .... 1* | meee errr ere 1 1 I gs S 3 D cncahagaadaeasaee Daitee: MOONEE &< cin) 06 cecicntcccnbecs.s | PAS Rr ere Corer etre peer eee ee” been ee eee a rere Creer ree? WEGGUUEE co cnccstcccelecscccscccssich eocccdncceses| cccesesesees ME CE POPE TEE LEER ET: PERE ECC EE CET T D cntdiigawsaseatnas Ce ML | Ca eR EOEEL 656 ass aaa Odi ses cent aces cade Kas eee cesee Paes dees caacee Bes dcashead ae WUhweseacdn Gece sched ee desseeraiciehs baeunetcudans 3 Machinist* ......-. t er SEP erer Mr eer re CCT er ere Lar rery irr t - Sratinaagudewtee debaamsanaes | sada cackoueaan Cabinet Maker ..... S| eee CE PEE Ee CE PN Cee? emp yee tiny! "st EEE MEPS 3 oe ere, | Sn ae ee Sccwhepasaatann Carpenter .cecrcecefeccccccccccccalecccccccvcccce! coves cceccee | once ceccescee beecceccecceccs ee seu teks wee ade aware Rene Py weeedeweadaaan EE GRY TEE CERT POET OEE PROCTER DOP R COPE r CR prrrpetaemre Sbemenlen tm iertene ak tas ca dares Jes cecceeerees l addandnguaded

eet es Tee. cnctacens 69 44 75 51 33 18 MB ical 54 21

~~ * Car Department.

+ The 13 laborers are included in the class for reasons which will be considered in the section on “The Car Department.” The above information is correct to May 1. Since that time a number of apprentices have been added at different points.

can be done. Care is exercised that too many boys are not taken from any one department in the shop at the same time, so as not to interfere too seriously with the shop work. The drawing course is arranged so that one instructor can look after as many as 24 boys at a time, although smaller classes may be handled to better advantage. The average number of students in a class is about 17.

The Drawing Courses——The class work is largely mechanical drawing, although some time is devoted to blackboard exercises in connection with the problem course, and occasionally the in- structor may find it advisable to talk to the class about the work in the drawing or problem courses. The students are also in- structed from models as to shop practice and taught the princi- ples of the steam engine and valve setting with the aid of a small

Present Extent.

Thus far apprentice schools have been established at nine points on the system, including West Albany, Depew, East Buffalo and Oswego, on the New York Central; Elkhart and Col- linwood on the Lake Shore; Brightwood on the Big Four; Jack- son on the Michigan Central, and McKees Rocks on the Pitts- burgh & Lake Erie. The date on which each of these schools was inaugurated, the number of apprentices in each trade, and the names of the drawing and shop instructors are shown on the accompanying tables. The boys are divided into three classes at all the shops, except Oswego and East Buffalo, these two places having two classes each. The schools were all started in 1906.

Date

stationary engine in the class room. School

The d 7 diff that di i] Shop. Started. Drawing Instructor. Shop Instructor.

e drawing course is very different from that ordinarily west arany 5/7 A. L. Devine Prank ilies

followed, and is based on strictly practical and common-sense Jackson 5/15 C. P. Wilkinson C. T. Phelan

: he - 4 Depew 5/28 G. Kuch, Sr. P. P. Foller lines. No time is wasted on geometrical exercises, but from the* Collinwood 6/4 R. M. Brown Thos. Fleming

. > . . aa . . +1: McKees Rocks 7/il Henry Gardner J. R. Radcliffe very first the student draws objects with which he is familiar and East Buffalo 8/2 ia” =3— Ss cerca weg comes in contact in the shop. The first exercises are largely Brightwood 8/8 C. M. Davis A. W. Martin

; P e 2 Elkhart 9/11 C. A. Towsley J. S. Lauby

redrawing correctly sketches which are not in scale, the dimen- Oswego yn a ~~ erates 5

sions in all cases being taken from the model. New principles are introduced gradually and progress is slow but very thorough. The courses in drawing will be considered in detail in a later section of this article.

Problem Courses.—Like the drawing course the problem course is eminently practical and is based on shop practice and company standards. No matter how simple the problems, even in simple addition and subtraction, they refer to something with which the boy is familiar in connection with his work. The problems grad- ually grow more difficult, taking up the simpler principles of al- gebra, geometry, physics, elementary mechanics, etc., but these are introduced only when necessary to solve some practical problem and are not classified as such. The boys do the greater part of the problem work at home.

Text-Books.—It is not possible to use text-books in connection with either of the above courses. The work must be arranged to suit the special conditions met with in a railroad shop, and to be effective the problems must be tied up closely to the shop work. For instance, the drawing and problem courses for the locomotive and car department are not alike. The drawing prob- lems are arranged on blue print sheets and when a boy is ready a problem sheet and a model are handed to him, the sheet giving the directions as to what is to be done. In this way each boy in the class can work on a different problem, and yet the work of the instructor is very little more difficult than if all were on the same problem.

The problems are arranged on sheets, and as soon as a boy finishes one sheet he is given another. The instructors keep in close touch with the central organization and co-operate in get- ting together material for the drawing and problem courses.

The methods followed in arranging these two courses are very different from those usually advocated by educators. They,

however, form the real foundation of successful school work, and the rapid progress made by the apprentice schools is due largely to them. Their importance is such that we shall present

a detail study of both these courses in the third article of the Series.

The total number of apprentices enrolled in the schools at the present time is 396. The total number of apprentices on the New York Central Lines, not including the Boston & Albany, is 667, so that at present more than 58 per cent. of them have the ad- vantages of the apprentice schools. The schools are being ex- tended to the larger shops as rapidly as possible. The larger shops where schools have not yet been established are:

Road. Place No. of Apprentices. Me Rede cistaeceaucweed LL OO OPE T PORTS oe 20 CET Pht iedeceomedas RS cksinadae aaa uaa el 18 DA Che cccéedvwwws ORs. awk cd cqauncctened 12 tO Pre rr or ere ee Bellefontaine ............¢- 36 Nd 6.4 dec oreean nes CNN ac cs vee aaa eawas 18 pO eee re ree eee ee Cre er oe 26 Woe claccicecanees DR MOED oe ccnanonedaucews 14 | LC Serer err ere WEEE? cay ctceeeeweceuwaes 14 Sree SIGN: acaaawaaawe cedures 24 pO eer ree re VOR Wte cecccndwesiexesas 15 ee | ee ey eee eee 27

MO cc ev aces tiscaasapecdivucecdeweraenaesens 224

When schools are installed at these places over 92 per cent. of the apprentices on the New York Central Lines will have school privileges. The remaining 8 per cent. are at 13 points, each place having from one to nine apprentices. Just how these will be reached has not yet been decided, but probably by traveling in- structors.

Drawing Instructor.

Duties.—The drawing instructor is usually the shop draftsman and reports to the shop management on all matters concerning the apprentice schools, except those which are purely educational. All reports are transmitted to the central apprentice organization through the local management. The instructor is expected to keep in close personal touch with each apprentice, so much so that it will be unnecessary. to give examinations to determine the student’s standing. He has charge of the school and checks up and assists the boys in connection with the problem course.

As it is necessary for him to be at the school before seven o’clock in the morning and he must also devote more or less of

‘STOOHOS ADILNAUdd VY IWAAAAS AO SMHAIA AOIMALNI

‘AINA AMVI BV HOUNASLLIId “vd ‘SMOOU SAIMOW “IVULNAD NVDIHOIN “HOIW ‘Nosunove[

Nag WOSe } dx x

“IVULNAD MYOA MAN “A ‘N ‘ANVATV LSIM “IVULNAD MYOA MIN “A ‘N ‘MAdIA

< Z e4 -) O a < © a4 = << fe Q Z < as fx) = q O Z aa A < = mA (x) = <

=——

JuNE, 1907.

AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL. 207

his own time in correcting the problems which are handed in and in other duties connected with the school, he is paid extra for this service, depending on how many classes he has each week. The instructor should be at the drawing-room for at least a part of the noon hour to advise and assist any of the boys who may drop in at that time.

Qualifications.—The success of the system depends very largely upon selecting the proper men for instructors. The drawing instructor should preferably be the shop draftsman, thus being brought into close contact with shop problems and also with the men in the shop. He must be a man who will take a genuine interest in the boys and can see things from their point of view; a man that the boys will feel free to approach either for in- formation as to their class or problem work, or for advice as to personal matters.

He should be a man to whom the boys will look for advice and assistance in forming apprentice clubs or organizations, whether intended for educational or social purposes. One in- structor who is especially close to the boys is very often accosted on the street in the evening by boys who have questions to ask in connection with some problem. Some of the instructors make a practice of calling upon the boys at their homes when they have been absent from the shop due to illness or other causes. A quiet talk with a careless or indifferent boy often accom- plishes remarkable results.

Observation Visits to Others Schools.—It is the policy to have the instructors visit the other schools on the system in order to broaden out and see what the other fellows are doing. A very noticeable feature at most of the schools is that upon examining the methods and equipment closely the instructor is quite likely to tell you that he got a certain idea from one point, another from still another school, etc. Possibly this feature is to some extent responsible for the rapid progress which has been made at some of the schools, at any rate it is apparently productive of important results, especially at this time when the work is just getting well started. A periodical meeting of the instructors would doubtless be productive of good results.

Understudy—The drawing instructor should have some one trained to take his place when he is absent. His duties in con- nection with other work may take him away from the shop for a day or two; he may be taken ill, or find it advisable to visit one of the other schools. In such cases his assistant in the drawing room, if he has one, or one of the advanced apprentices should be in position to look after the school. At Brightwood the drawing instructor was ill for some time and his place was filled by the shop instructor.

Shop Instructor. The shop instructor is an important factor in the organization. The Collinwood shop on the Lake Shore was the first to intro- duce an apprentice shop instructor, and the results were so im-

SCHOOL IN SESSION AT THE COLLINWOOD SHOPS, LAKE SHORE & MICHIGAN SOUTHERN.

mediately apparent and important that this feature was included in the new apprentice organization when it was started.

Duties—The shop instructor at the larger shops gives his entire time to looking after the apprentices. He instructs the boys at their trade and sees that they are changed from one class of work to another, in accordance with the apprentice schedules. In changing the apprentices about the instructor consults with the various foremen, studying the situation carefully in order to have as little friction as possible in making the changes, and so as not to interfere too greatly with the efficiency of any one department. His suggestions must of course be approved by the shop superintendent before being put into effect.

He must pass upon all applicants for apprenticeship as the official representative of the apprentice department, and is also to make recommendations as to apprentices who are unsatisfac- tory and should be dropped from the service; in fact, he is held responsible for the retention in service of apprentices who are incompetent or otherwise unsatisfactory. He is expected to assist and consult with the drawing instructor as far as possible.

The apprentices report to their foremen, as before, but the foremen are relieved of all responsibility of instructing them. Ordinarily very great returns are not to be expected from the introduction of an apprentice system until after a period of several years, but the work of the shop instructor has been found to almost immediately affect the shop output, and this is to be expected. The shop foremen are too busy to spend much time with the boys, and ordinarily the instruction in shop practice has been very much neglected, thus restricting the output and in- creasing the amount of spoiled work. The shop instructor is expected to occasionally visit other shop schools to study their methods.

Qualifications—The shop instructor, like the drawing in- structor, must have a great deal of patience with, and take a genuine interest in, the boys. He must be a good mechanic, must have sufficient all-around knowledge to enable him to look after the boys in the various trades, and his position in the shop organization should be such that the boys will look up to him. Most of all, he should be a man who will appeal to the boys and know how to convey his ideas so that they will readily under- stand him. He should take a broad view of the shop problems, giving the boys some idea as to the general principles affecting their work, such, for instance, as movement of material through the shop, the cost of production and the elimination of lost motion in performing their work.

Advantages to the Instructors.

In addition to what financial compensation the drawing and shop instructors receive there are other important advantages. To successfully handle their work they must study up and be- come more familiar with the work in the various departments of the shops. They become familiar with shop practice at other

208

AMERICAN ENGINEER AND RAILROAD JOURNAL.

points on the system by occasional visits. If they have marked executive ability it soon becomes apparent, and this with the broader view they have of the shop operation fits them for more important positions in the organization. Nothing is quite so important in crystallizing one’s ideas and broadening a man“as trying to instruct others.

Facilities and Equipment.

Drawing Room Equipment.—An effort has been madé to pro- vide sufficient blackboard space in each school room so that the entire class, if possible, may be sent to the board at one time. A standard drawing table is used at several shops, but at others the shape of the room, or equipment already at hand, made it advisable to deviate from this. The construction of this table is shown in the accompanying drawing. It is simple but substan-

SECTION OF THE CASE FOR FILING DRAWING BOARDS AND TOOLS.

tial and inexpensive. Drawing stools are furnished and are especially appreciated by the evening classes.

Cases are provided for filing the drawing boards and tools. A section of one of these standard cases is shown in the accom- panying photograph. Each drawing board is numbered and is filed in a corresponding space in the case, the tools being placed in an orderly arrangement on top of the board. made of %-in. pine with an oak stain finish. The section for filing the drawing boards is 19%4-in. wide, 2714-in. deep and 3-ft. 6-in. high, this being sufficient for 24 boards. The drawers at the bottom are used for storing material. Racks or tables are provided for the drawing models. The arrangement used at Depew is shown in one of the